JUNIPER BERRY OIL
|Botanical Name||Juniperus indica Bertol.|
|Synonyms||Juniperus wallichiana Hook.f. & Thomas. ex Brandis|
|English Name||Juniper, Black Juniper|
Juniperus indica is a large deciduous shrub or small tree, ultimate branchlets densely arranged, straight, and usually four-angled. Leaves both scale-like and awl or needle-like; awl-like leaves (3mm), awl-like leaves (3mm), spreading, present on lower branches; scale-like leaves less than l.5mm, over lapping in four ranks, present on terminal branches. Seed cone ovoid, 6-13mm, erect, greenish-brown when young, and later turns blue. Fruiting occurs from May-August.
Juniperus indica is a Sinu-Japanese element that is found throughout Nepal within the altitudinal range of 3300m to 4500m. It prefers open and rocky slopes and sometimes forms pure forests in lower sub-alpine regions.
Juniper oil is extracted from the steam distillation of leaves, aerial twigs, and berries of Juniperus indica. The yield percentage of Juniper oil ranged from 0.8% to 1.6% in fruits and 0.27% to 0.8% in berries on a fresh weight basis.
Traditionally, fruits and leaves are used in kidney disorders, skin disease, fever, cold and cough, and wounds. Leaves are used in diarrhea, constipation, and asthma and are regarded as beneficial to the heart and to relax the mind. Leaves and twigs are highly praised as incense in the monasteries.
Juniper oil is an important natural product used directly in fragrance compounding. The oil is used to scent pharmaceutical preparations as well as in cosmetic products such as soaps, disinfectants, perfumery, etc. The oil is extensively used in many food products, alcoholic and soft drinks. Juniper berry oil is used to flavor the alcoholic beverage 'Gin'. The oil is found to have diuretic and antiseptic properties.
|Appearance:||A mobile liquid|
|Aroma:||Sweet, fresh,wood balsamic odour.|
Juniper berry oil: Sabinene (19.4-31.3%), (Thujone 25.8%), terpinen-4-ol (3.7-13%), trans-sabinyl acetate (7.6- 24.3%), a-pinene, camphene, myrcene, α-pellandrene, α -terpinene, γ -terpinene, 1,4-cineol, bornyl acetate, and caryophyllene are identified as the major constituents in the Juniper berry oil.
|Specific gravity||0.8563 to 0.8731 at 23° C?>|
|Optical rotation||[-] 22° to [-]41.7° at 23° C?>|
|Refractive index||1.481 to 1.899 at 23°C?>|
|Acid number||0.5 to 2.5|
|Ester number||3.06 to 20|
|Ester number||40 to 65 (after acetylation) (after acetylation)|
|Solubility||Due to altitudinal and regional variation some oils are soluble in 95% alcohol and some are not|
It is listed as lower risk/least concerned species under the IUCN red list.