Botanical Name Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm.
Synonyms Laurus tamala Buch.-Ham., Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Laurus albiflora Wall.
Family Lauraceae
Local Name Tejpat, Dalchini
English Name Cinnamon,Nepalese Cinnamon

Plant Description

Cinnamon is an evergreen tree about 15m high, with dark brown and wrinkled bark. Leaves stalked, alternate or sub opposite, ovate to oblong, long pointed, three-veined, entire, glabrous, shiny above, and pinkish when young. Yellowish stalked flowers bloom from April to May, and fruit appears as a drupe from December to February.
The cinnamon tree is distributed throughout Nepal within the altitudinal range of 450-2200m on moist slopes of forest land.


Cinnamon leaf oil is extracted by steam distillation of the leaves and twigs of Cinnamomum tamala. Leaves contain about 2% of essential oil.


Traditional Uses: Bark and leaves are used as spices in curries, pickles, vegetables, and meats. The leaves, bark, and oils are exported from Nepal to different countries. Leaf and bark are extensively used to treat colic and diarrhea. Cinnamon is used for various complaints like cold, flu, digestive problems, menstrual problems, rheumatism, etc.
Modern Uses: Cinnamon leaf oil is used as fragrance components in perfumes, industrial fragrances, cosmetic products, detergents, soaps, etc. The oil is also used in flavoring foods, especially alcoholic and soft drinks. The oil is also extensively used in aromatherapy.
Key Actions: Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antiseptic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Carminative, Digestive, Stomachic, Emmenagogue, Relaxant

Organoleptic Properties

Appearance: Fluid liquid
Colour: Golden yellow to brownish liquid
Aroma: Warm-Spicy,Camphoraceous odour

Active Constituents

Monoterpenoids (Linalool 65%) are the major constituents of Cinnamon leaf oil followed by cinnamaldehyde. α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene ranges around 5-10% each. Others are β-terpinyl acetate, 2-propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate, eugenol, eugenol acetate, benzyl benzoate, and safrole in traces.

Physico-Chemical Properties

Specific gravity 0.881 to 0.944 at 25°C?>
Optical rotation [-]5 to [+] 4 at 25°C?>
Refractive index 1.485 to 1.540 at 25°C?>
Acid number 0.5 to 6.5
Ester number Not less than 65
Ester number 100 to 145 (after acetylation) (after acetylation)
Solubility Soluble in 0.4 to 2.5 vol. of 90% alcohol; turbid on addition of further alcohol, insoluble in water