Botanical Name Matricaria chamomilla L.
Synonyms -Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Chamomilla chamomilla (L.) Rydb., Matricaria suaveolens L
Family Compositae (Asteraceae)
Local Name Chamomile
English Name Chamomile, Scented Mayweed

Plant Description

Chamomile is native to Europe. It is cultivated in the tropical regions of Nepal (below 1OOOm). It is an annual aromatic herb, reaching up to 60 to 90 m. The stem is much branched, hairless, and fistular and the leaves are alternate and finely dissected. Flowers are small and aromatic, with sizes ranging from 1.3 to 2.0 cm across; flower heads have white peripheral ray florets and yellow tubular disc florets.


Chamomile oil is extracted by steam distillation of the flowering heads (inflorescence) of Matricaria chamomilla.


The chamomile plant is used as a treatment for various complaints regarding nervous dyspepsia, nervous bowel, tension, headache, and sleeplessness, especially for children.
Chamomile oil is widely used in antiseptic ointments, and carminative, antispasmodic tonic preparation. It is used as a beneficial ingredient in cosmetics and perfumery (such as high-valued perfume, hair care products, and soaps). Chamomile oil is used in beverages and food flavoring like chocolates, ice cream, etc. Chamomile oil has a wide range of therapeutic applications such as analgesic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrizing, cholagogue, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, fungicidal, hepatic, nervous, sedative, stomachic, vermifuge, and stimulant of leucocyte production.
Similarly, its aromatherapeutic uses are:

Skin Care: allergies, boils, cuts and wounds, dermatitis, eczema, hair care, inflammation
Digestive System: Dyspepsia, colic, indigestion, nausea
Nervous System: Insomnia, nervous tension, migraine.

Organoleptic Properties

Appearance: A viscous fluid
Colour: A dark greenish blue
Aroma: Intensely sweet,herbaceous with fresh-fruity undertone

Active Constituents

Chamomile oil mainly consists of sesquiterpene derivatives (75–90%) but only traces of
monoterpenes. The chamomile oil contains azulene, matrichin, terpene hydrocarbon, ketonic alcohol,
methoxy coumarin, furfural, chamazulene, α - bisabolol, (E)- β-farnesene, farnesol, α- bisabolol oxide-A,
α- bisabolol oxide-B, α-farnesene, terpene oil, germacrene D, trans- -ocimene, 1,5-heptadien-4-one, β-elemene, caryophyllene oxide, aromadendrene, β-selinene, bicyclogermacrene, α -amorphene, δ-cadinene, sesquirosefuran, cyclohexane, and bisabolone oxide.

Physico-Chemical Properties

Specific gravity 0.880 to 0.930 at 25°C?>
Optical rotation [-]15 to 0 at 25°C?>
Refractive index 1.470 to 1.530 at 25°C?>
Acid number 4 to 15.7
Ester number 5 to 15
Ester number 65 to 110 (after acetylation)
Solubility Soluble in 90% alcohol with separation of paraffins